Gaming in the United States: New York: overview

A Q&A guide to gaming in the United States: New York.

The Q&A provides a high level overview of the legislative framework of gambling regulation; the regulatory authorities; gambling products; land-based gambling; regulation and licensing; online gambling; B2B and B2C operations; mobile gaming and interactive gambling; social gaming; gambling debts; tax; advertising and developments and reform.

To compare answers across multiple jurisdictions, vist the Gaming Country Q&A Tool.

This Q&A is part of the Gaming Global Guide. The gaming global guide serves as a starting point for understanding the regulatory framework of land-based and online gaming.

Contents

Legislative framework of gambling regulation

Overview

1. What legislation applies to gambling?

The New York Constitution prohibits gambling, with the exception of (New York Constitution, Article 1, § 9):

  • State-run lotteries.

  • Pari-mutuel betting on horse races.

  • Up to seven casinos.

  • Certain bingo and lottery games to raise funds for charitable, religious, or not-for-profit organisations.

The New York Penal Law (§§ 225 et seq) governs the criminal offences associated with gambling. It does not differentiate between land-based or online gambling, but prohibits several specific categories of behaviour, including the following:

  • Promoting gambling (such as bookmaking or running a lottery).

  • Possessing gambling records (such as lotteries, bookmaking information or easily destructible forms of paper relating to gambling).

  • Possessing a gambling device (such as slot machines or other gambling devices).

  • Gaming fraud (including defrauding a casino or any other type of fraud in relation to a bet or wager).

  • Using counterfeit or unlawful gaming instruments.

  • Using or possessing unlawful gaming property (such as false or fraudulent gaming materials), manipulating gaming outcomes, and the manufacturing, selling or modifying of any equipment or devices in violation of gambling laws.

Gamblers are not criminalised by the New York Penal Law.

The New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law primarily contains provisions relating to horse racing and regulates the horse-racing industry, including the creation and regulation of off-track betting facilities and licensing. It also contains provisions for destination/resort casinos, which relate specifically to land-based gaming, and for interactive fantasy sports, which relate specifically to online gambling.

The following additional provisions relate to gambling:

  • Article 34 of the New York Tax Law, which governs the state-run lottery, other lotteries and the establishment of video lottery terminals at limited locations throughout the state.

  • Article 19B of the New York Executive Law and Article 14H of the New York General Municipal Law, which govern charitable bingo games.

  • Article 9A of the General Municipal Law, which governs charitable games of chance.

There also are several Indian casinos in New York that operate under tribal-state compacts under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. These compacts are not part of the New York Consolidated Laws (that is, the codification of the permanent laws of a general nature of New York enacted by the New York Legislature).

Definitions of gambling

2. What is the legal definition of gambling in your jurisdiction and what falls within this definition?

General definition

A person engages in gambling when he/she stakes or risks something of value on the outcome of a contest of chance or a future contingent event not under his/her control or influence, on agreement or understanding that he/she will receive something of value in the event of a certain outcome (New York Criminal Law, § 225.00.).

This definition is broad and includes specific categories of fantasy sports, lotteries, slot machines, video game lotteries and bookmaking, among other activities.

Online gambling

New York does not have a specific definition of online gambling.

Land-based gambling

New York does not have a specific definition of land-based gambling.

Regulatory authorities

3. What are the regulatory or governmental bodies that are responsible for supervising gambling?

The New York State Gaming Commission (formed in 2013 by the combination of the New York State Racing and Wagering Board and the New York Lottery) can issue rules and regulations relating to horse racing and gaming, including casino gaming, state and charitable lotteries, and video lottery terminals. The Commission has authority over licensing and civil enforcement matters, but must refer criminal violations of law to other law enforcement agencies.

A voter referendum in 2013 approved an amendment to the New York State Constitution allowing for up to seven casinos to be established in the state (not including Indian casinos). However, there is statutory authorisation for only four licences to be issued in specific regions, with specific limitations and further statutory authorisation will be necessary before the Gaming Commission can issue licences for the three additional casinos. A separate New York Gaming Facility Location Board is responsible for selecting the locations for casinos.

Race tracks, race track casinos, and video lottery terminals, among other types of gambling are supervised separately under the New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law. The New York Gaming Commission oversees racing and pari-mutuel wagering, in addition to its duties related to casinos and lottery.

See box, The regulatory authorities.

Gambling products

4. What gambling products have been specifically identified by legislation, and what different requirements have been established for each?

Poker

Poker has not been specifically identified by legislation. It is covered by the general definition of gambling (see Question 2, General definition).

Betting

Betting is not specifically identified by legislation. It is covered by the general definition of gambling (see Question 2, General definition).

Sports betting

''Sports pool'' is defined as the business of accepting wagers on any sports event by any system or method of wagering (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, § 1367(1)(h)).

However, no gaming facility can conduct sports wagering until either (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, § 1367(2)):

  • There has been a change in federal law authorising this.

  • A court of competent jurisdiction rules that it is lawful.

Currently, sports betting in New York is prohibited by the federal Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992, 28 U.S.C, § 3701 et seq.

Casino games

Casino gaming refers to any games that are authorised to be played in a casino (New York Penal Law, § 225.00(15)).

Slot and other machine gaming

A slot machine means a gambling device which, as a result of the insertion of a coin or other object, operates, either completely automatically or with the aid of some physical act by the player, on the basis that, depending on elements of chance, it may eject something of value.

A device that is constructed in the above manner (or readily adaptable or convertible to that manner) will still be defined as a slot machine if at least one of the following applies:

  • It is not in working order.

  • Due to some mechanical act of manipulation, repair is required to accomplish its adaptation, conversion or workability.

  • Apart from its use or adaptability, it can also sell or deliver something of value on a basis other than chance.

However, a machine that sells items of merchandise, which are of equivalent value, is not a slot machine merely because these items differ from each other in composition, size, shape or color (New York Penal Law, § 225.00(8)).

Terminal-based gaming

New York law refers to terminal-based gaming as video lottery terminals, which include any lottery game played on a video lottery terminal that issues electronic tickets, allows multiple players to participate in the same game and determines winners to a material degree on the basis of the element of chance, notwithstanding that the skill of a player can influence the player's chance of winning a game. Video lottery gaming can include elements of player interaction after a player receives an initial chance (New York Tax Law, § 1602(6)).

Bingo

Bingo is defined as a specific game of chance, commonly known as bingo or lotto, in which prizes are awarded on the basis of designated numbers or symbols on a card conforming to numbers or symbols, selected at random (New York Executive Law, §432).

Lottery

Lottery is defined as an unlawful gambling scheme in which all the following applies (New York Penal Law § 225.00):

  • The players pay or agree to pay something of value, for chances represented and differentiated by numbers or by combinations of numbers or by some other media, one or more of which are to be designated the winning ones.

  • The winning chances are to be determined by a drawing or by some other method based on the element of chance.

  • The holders of the winning chances receive something of value, provided, that it must not be construed to include a raffle.

A lottery also refers to a state-run lottery operated by the New York State Gaming Commission's Division of the Lottery (New York Tax Law, § 1602).

Interactive fantasy sports

An interactive fantasy sports contest has been defined separately as a game of skill, where one or more contestants compete against each other by using their knowledge and understanding of athletic events to select and manage rosters of simulated players, whose performance directly corresponds with the actual performance of human competitors on sports teams and in sports events (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, § 1401(8)).

 

Land-based gambling

Regulation/licensing

5. What is the licensing regime (if any) for land-based gambling?

Available licences

The following licences are available:

  • Gaming facility licence under Title 2 of Article 13 of the New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law.

  • Casino key employee licence under the New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law § 1323.

  • Vendor enterprise licence required for any vendor to a casino under the New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law § 1326 et seq.

  • Video lottery gaming employee or key employee licence under Title 9 of the New York Codes, Rules, and Regulations, § 5100.1 et seq.

  • Video lottery gaming vendor licence under Title 9 of the New York Codes, Rules, and Regulation, § 5106.1 et seq.

  • Bingo licence under Article 24 of the New York General Municipal Law and Part 4600 et seq of Title 9 of the New York Codes, Rules, and Regulations.

Eligibility

Gaming facility licence. The New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law provides a series of thresholds and requirements for any entity that requires a gaming facility licence, including:

  • A minimum threshold of capital investment to be determined by the New York Gaming Facility Location Board, based on the jurisdiction's needs.

  • Ownership of land or specific plans to acquire land for a casino.

  • The ability to construct the proposed casino within 24 months.

Casino key employee licence. The law does not provide specific requirements for a casino key employee licence.

Vendor enterprise licence. The applicant must demonstrate good character (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, §1326).

Video lottery gaming employee or key employee licence and video lottery gaming vendor licence. The applicant must be over 18 years old, eligible to work in the US, and cannot have been previously employed as a gaming surveillance department employee working with the same facility within one year (New York Codes, Rules, and Regulations, Title 9, §§ 5201.1 et seq). For a vendor licence, the applicant must also be validly registered to operate in New York and must provide proof that all subcontractors are also validly registered (New York Codes, Rules, and Regulations, Title 9, §§ 5106.1 et seq.)

''Key employees'' who require a licence are those with discretion over policy and business matters.

Bingo licence. The applicant must be a bona fide religious or charitable organisation, a bona fide educational, fraternal, or service organisation, a bona fide veterans or a volunteer fire-fighter organisation (New York General Municipal Law, §186(4)).

The applicant must also provide financial information, including the uses of the proceeds from any bingo game, raffle, or similar competition (New York General Municipal Law, § 480).

Application procedure

Gaming facility licence. The applicant form must include all of the following (New York Codes, Rules, and Regulations, Title 9, §5301.2):

  • Contact information of the applicant/person authorised by the applicant.

  • Current and former trade names of the applicant.

  • Principal business address of the applicant.

  • Date and formation of the applicant.

  • All other addresses presently used by the applicant for business.

  • A description of the business the applicant intends to conduct and the general development of this business in the past five years or since it has been engaged in business (whichever is shorter).

  • Details on the compensation and stock structure of the applicant.

  • Background information on shareholders and board members, including names and addresses.

  • List of current legal proceedings that the applicant is involved with (if any).

  • Details of the applicant's other gambling-related activities in other jurisdictions (if any).

  • Copies of all financial statements, audits, shareholder reports, tax documents, and other relevant financial documentation.

There is no specific time period for consideration. A recent consideration process by the New York Gaming Facility Location Board began with a request for proposal, which was issued on 31 March 2014 and the decision was issued on 17 December 2014.

Casino key employee licence. The applicant must provide personal information and agree to a thorough background check (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, §1323).

Vendor enterprise licence. The application form is provided by the Gaming Commission.

Video lottery gaming employee or key employee licence and video lottery gaming vendor licence. The applicant form must provide all of the following (New York Codes, Rules, and Regulations, Title 9, § 5102.1):

  • Identification of the applicant.

  • The applicant's fingerprint.

  • The applicant's photograph.

  • An example of the applicant's handwriting.

  • The applicant's proof of eligibility to work in the US.

The application form includes personal history, military service, residence history, education and employment history, other issued licences and a civil and criminal background check. Key employee and vendor applications require additional information such as bank statements, personal income schedules and tax returns.

Bingo licence. The applicant must provide information about the premises, including rental arrangements, if leased, and information about the intended uses for the proceeds of the game (New York General Municipal Law,§480). The application must be submitted at least seven days before consideration by the municipal governing body (New York Codes, Rules, and Regulations, Title 9, § 4603.2).

Duration of licence and cost

Gaming facility licence. There is a US$1 million application fee. If necessary, additional funds may be required to cover the costs of processing the application. Funds not required for the costs of processing will be returned to the applicant (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, § 1316(8)).

There is an annual licence fee of between US$20 million and US$75 million, depending on the location (New York Codes, Rules, and Regulations, Title 9, §601.1). There is also an annual licence of US$500 per slot machine or table game.

The licences are for an initial term of ten years (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, § 1311(1), New York Codes, Rules, and Regulations, Title 9, § 5301.8(b)).

Casino key employee licence. The licence is valid for five years and is renewable (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, § 1325(6)).

A fee may be charged to offset the costs of processing the application (New York Codes, Rules, and Regulations, Title 9, § 5303.14(a)).

The fees must be indicated on the application form.

Vendor enterprise licence. The licence is valid for five years and is renewable (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, § 1327).

The fee of each licence is established by the Gaming Commission.

Video lottery gaming employee or key employee licence and video lottery gaming vendor licence. The licence is valid until suspended, revoked, or terminated.

The fee of each licence is established by the Gaming Commission.

Bingo licence. The fee for a single game of bingo is US$18.75 (New York General Municipal Law, §481(1)(a)). The fees for a commercial bingo hall is set on a sliding scale depending on the amount of rental income received, and may range from between US$500 and US$5,000 annually (New York General Municipal Law, § 481(1)(b)).

A licence cannot last for more than one year. However, there are also licences for ''limited period bingo'', which prohibit more than two games on one day or games on more than seven of any 12 consecutive days (New York General Municipal Law, §481(3)).

Interactive fantasy sports providers need not apply for a licence, but are required to register with the Gaming Commission and must have their contests approved (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, §1402).

 
6. What are the limitations or requirements imposed on land-based gambling operators?

Prohibitions

The New York States Constitution generally prohibits gambling, except for lottery and horse race wagering (Article 1, § 9). A recent constitutional amendment has permitted the state to authorise up to seven casinos.

No person under 21 can gamble in a gaming facility (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, § 1332(1)).

Restrictions

A casino that commits any felony or crime involving public integrity, embezzlement, theft, fraud, or perjury, or pursuit of profit in a way contrary to state policy is automatically disqualified (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, §1318).

Casinos must make certain payments into a commercial gaming revenue fund, which is used to support state elementary and secondary education, the municipality that hosts the gaming establishment and local real property tax relief.

Anti-money laundering legislation

Money laundering is legislated at the federal level. Title 18, section 1956 of the United States Code criminalises money laundering, and violation of this statute is punishable by fine and imprisonment. To be criminally culpable, a person must conduct or attempt to conduct a financial transaction, knowing that the property represents the proceeds of an illegal activity.

 

Online gambling

Regulation/licensing

7. What is the licensing regime (if any) for online gambling?

Available licences

Licences are not generally provided for online gambling, although interactive fantasy sports businesses must register with the Gaming Commission and must have their contests approved (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, § 1402).

Eligibility

Applicants must agree to a background check for all officers and directors (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, §1403) and must put in place certain procedural safeguards to prevent participation by minors, provide transparency, and protect player funds and game integrity (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, § 1404).

Application procedure

The Gaming Commission is due to adopt regulations and application procedures relating to interactive fantasy sports businesses. Currently, businesses are operating under a temporary permit (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, § 1402(2)).

To obtain a temporary daily fantasy sports licence, an operator must satisfy all the following:

  • Have operated in New York prior to 10 November 2015.

  • Complete the application, specifically providing (among others):

    • the operator's contact information;

    • details of the operator's daily operations;

    • the efforts the operator has made to protect consumers, such as preventing underage gambling, combating gambling addictions, and preventing highly experienced players from taking advantage of others;

    • Information on prize pools.

Duration of licence and cost

The temporary permit is valid for three years and there is no cost.

 
8. What are the limitations or requirements imposed on online gambling operators?

Prohibitions

Online gambling (other than interactive fantasy sports (see Question 7)) is prohibited under the New York Constitution (see Question 1). Many operators elect to block New York-based IP addresses to avoid running afoul of New York gambling laws.

Restrictions

See above, Prohibitions.

Anti-money laundering legislation

See above, Prohibitions.

B2B and B2C

9. Is there a distinction between the law applicable between B2B operations and B2C operations in online gambling?

New York law does not regulate online gambling. Therefore, there is no distinction between B2B operations and B2C operations.

Technical measures

10. What technical measures are in place (if any) to protect consumers from unlicensed operators, such as ISP blocking and payment blocking?

There are no technical measures in place to protect consumers from unlicensed operators. However, many operators elect to block New York-based IP addresses to avoid running afoul of New York gambling laws.

 

Mobile gambling and interactive gambling

11. What differences (if any) are there between the regulation of mobile gambling and interactive gambling on television?

New York law does not regulate online gambling operators.

 

Social gaming

12. How is social gaming regulated in your jurisdiction?

New York does not currently have any laws or regulations in relation to social gaming.

 

Gambling debts

13. Are gambling debts enforceable in your jurisdiction?

Gambling debts are not enforceable in New York (Article 5, New York General Obligations Law).

 

Tax

14. What are the applicable tax regimes for land-based and online gambling?

Land-based gambling

Casinos are taxed at a rate of 10% on all gross gaming revenues from sources other than slot machines, and between 37% and 45% on gross revenue from slot machines, depending on the casino's location (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, § 1351). The tax rate was set in part in response to lobbying by the racing industry, so that casinos and racing would have comparable tax rates.

Online gambling

Interactive fantasy sports businesses must pay tax at a rate of 15% of their gross revenue generated within New York and an additional tax of the lesser of 5% of gross revenue or US$50,000 (New York Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law, § 1407).

 

Advertising

15. To what extent is the advertising of gambling permitted in your jurisdiction? To the extent that advertising is permitted, how is it regulated?

Land-based gambling

New York does not have specific restrictions on the advertising of casinos or land-based gambling other than those already applicable to advertising generally (see Question 1).

Online gambling

Online gambling (other than interactive fantasy sports (see Question 7)) is prohibited under the New York Constitution (see Question 1). The general restrictions on advertising apply to interactive fantasy sports (see Question 1).

In addition, the Attorney General has recently brought consumer protection and false advertising claims against online daily fantasy sports providers.

 

Developments and reform

Legal development

16. Has the legal status of land-based and online gambling changed significantly in recent years, and if so how?

Land-based gambling

A recent state constitutional amendment and subsequent legislation have permitted, for the first time, several casinos to be opened and operated under state law. The bidding process was completed in late 2014, and the full structure for running, authorising and administering the casinos is still being developed. There is likely to be considerable development in this area since the legalisation of casinos.

Online gambling

Although the Attorney General attempted to ban daily fantasy sports in New York in late 2015, the New York State legislature passed legislation providing that fantasy sports are not gambling under state law and therefore permitting businesses to operate in New York. Temporary registrations were issued in August 2016 and the implementation of the law is still underway.

Reform

17. What, if any, are the likely short-term and long-term developments/legislative amendments concerning gambling in your jurisdiction? Are there any proposals for reform?

Land-based gambling

Despite the long-time existence of several Indian casinos, land-based gambling in New York is in its infancy. If the four casinos currently being built and established are successful and reap benefits for the state and the surrounding communities, it is likely that the growth of gambling will continue in the state. The state constitution allows for up to seven casinos, but current legislation only allows for four state-wide, so the number of casinos in the state could expand considerably if the four now in progress are successful. However, it is important to note that the growth of gambling is largely due to the impetus of the current governor, who has been largely supportive of gaming as a means to raise revenues for the state. Therefore, a change in administration could also lead to a change in gambling policy.

Online gambling

The New York Constitution prohibits online gambling. Therefore, it is unlikely that expansions in online gambling will be on the horizon in the near future.

Social gaming

Social gaming has not yet become a significant issue in New York. However, the recent approval of daily fantasy sports legislation suggests a willingness on the part of the state legislature to approve games and forms of gaming that are popular so long as sufficient assurances are in place. Accordingly, it is possible that the introduction of social gaming in New York may be followed by legislative efforts to grant it clear legal status. However, because the current state of the law may be unfavourable to social gaming, it is not prudent to rely on the likelihood of any future reforms.

 

The regulatory authorities

New York State Gaming Commission

W www.gaming.ny.gov/

Description. The New York State Gaming Commission was formed in 2013 by the combination of the New York State Racing and Wagering Board and the New York Lottery. The Commission has full control over the establishment of new casinos and full authority to regulate the areas of gaming, to consider and rule on licence applications or registration eligibilities, and to undertake civil (but not criminal) enforcement of New York's gambling laws.

New York State Gaming Facility Location Board

Description. This is a limited-purpose board, appointed by the Gaming Commission, with the sole task of considering proposals for casinos and determining which proposals are worthy of being granted licences. With the end of the bidding on the casinos currently authorised by statute, it is likely that this board will not be carrying on any work in the near future.



Online resources

New York State Legislature

W http://public.leginfo.state.ny.us/

Description. Officially maintained online access to New York State Laws. Updated regularly.

New York State Gaming Commission

W www.gaming.ny.gov/rules.php

Description. Links to PDF versions of New York Code of Rules and Regulations subchapters dealing with gaming issues and the Gaming Commission.



Contributor profiles

A Jeff Ifrah, Founder

Ifrah Law

T +1 (202) 524 4140
F +1 (202) 524 4141
E jeff@ifrahlaw.com
W www.ifrahlaw.com

Professional qualifications. Attorney, New York Bar, New Jersey Bar and District of Columbia Bar

Areas of practice. US government investigations; iGaming law; financial services and payment processing; digital media law; white collar defence and e-commerce.

Non-professional qualifications.

  • Named 2015 Litigation Trailblazer by the National Law Journal.
  • Listed in Chambers & Partners (USA) for Gaming and Licensing (Nationwide, 2015-2016).
  • White Collar Crime and Government Investigations (Washington, DC, 2011-2016).
  • Named 2015 White Collar Crime Local Litigation Star by Benchmark Litigation.
  • Listed as Outstanding Fraud and Compliance Lawyer by Nightingale's Healthcare News.
  • Listed as "Expert News Source" in Corporate Governance and Securities and Health Care/Pharmaceutical, by LexisNexis.

Recent transactions

  • Legal representation of the world's largest online gaming operator.
  • Serves as Special Internet Counsel for the Delaware State Lottery.
  • Negotiated a historic agreement between the US Department of Justice and high profile clients following the federal internet gambling ban in 2011.
  • Won dismissal of 56 separate felony counts for a gaming odds-master regarding criminal allegations tied to a multi-million dollar sports betting ring.
  • Won standard-setting victory for an internet operator related to an international jurisdiction matter following a related US Supreme Court ruling.
  • Founded the iDevelopment & Economic Association (iDEA), a trade association advocating for the interests of online interactive entertainment companies worldwide.

Languages. French, Hebrew

Professional associations/memberships.

  • International Masters of Gaming Law.
  • UNLV Gaming Law Journal Advisory Board.
  • Online Gambling Lawyer Editorial Board.
  • American Bar Association (ABA) Criminal Justice Section.
  • American Health Lawyers Association.
  • ABA Business Law Section.
  • National Association of Criminal Defence Lawyers.
  • ABA Procurement Law Section.

Publications. Author of articles in the Houston Chronicle, Law360, iGaming Business, Gaming Intelligence, eGaming Review and the New Law Journal.

David S Yellin

Ifrah Law

T +1 202 524 4140
F +1 202 524 4141
E dyellin@ifrahlaw.com
W www.ifrahlaw.com

Professional qualifications. Attorney, New York Bar and District of Columbia Bar; JD, Georgetown University Law Center

Areas of practice. US government investigations; iGaming law; financial services and payment processing; digital media law; white collar defence and e-commerce.

Non-professional qualifications. MSc in Comparative Politics, London School of Economics and Political Science; BA, Colgate University

Recent transactions

  • Negotiated a favourable resolution of federal telecommunications class action.
  • Achieved a favourable plea for time-served in criminal prosecution for payment processing arising out of international sports-betting operation.

Publications

  • Masters of Their Own Eminent Domain, Georgetown Law Journal.
  • The Elements of Constitutional Style, Tennessee Law Review.

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